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Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following statements linking nature and nurture is CORRECT? 2. The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg” research was 3. An idea in Freud's thinking that has special importance to sociology is his assertion that 4. Mead place the origin of the self in 5. Thinking about how patterns of child-rearing vary by class, lower-class parents generally stress _______, while well-to-do parents typically stress _______. 6. In historical perspective, the power of the mass media in the socialization process has 7. The “graying of the United States” refers to the fact that True/False ____ _____ 8. Socialization takes place entirely in childhood. _________ 9. College is a good example of a total institution. Short-Answer 10. Why are the cases of Anna and Genie important to social scientists? 1. Studies of children raised in isolation, show that 2. Which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture? 3. Which of the following concepts refers to an individual person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling? 4. The social sciences, including sociology, support the claim that 5. Behavioral theory, developed by ____________, claims that most human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment? 6. In the nature versus nurture debate sociologist claim that 7. The Harlows studied the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys and found that 8. The Harlows’ research with rhesus monkeys, as well as cases of isolated children such as Anna, leads us to conclude that 9. If you were to put together the lessons learned from the cases of Anna and Genie you would correctly conclude that 10. Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of 11. In Freud's model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person's efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives and the demands of society? 12. In Freud's model of personality, the __________ represents the presence of culture within the individual. 13. Applying Freud’s thinking to a sociological analysis of personality development, you would conclude that 14. Jean Piaget's focus was on 15. According to Piaget, at which stage of human development do individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings? 16. Jean Piaget called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols the 17. The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg's research was 18. Carol Gilligan extended Lawrence Kohlberg’s research, showing that 19. George Herbert Mead considered the self to be 20. George Herbert Mead placed the origin of the self in 21. According to George Herbert Mead, social experience involves 22. By “taking the role of the other,” Mead had in mind 23. When Charles Horton Cooley used the concept “looking-glass self,” he was referring to the fact that 24. According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to “take the role of the other” as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these important people as 25. In George Herbert Mead’s model, which sequence correctly orders stages of developing self? 26. Mead considered the “generalized other” to be 27. George Herbert Mead would agree with only one of the following statements. Which one is it? 28. Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization? 29. Critics of Erik H. Erikson’s theory of personality point out that 30. Family is important to the socialization process because 41. The elderly population of the United States has a poverty rate that is 42. What is the term sociologists give to a category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age? 43. Ageism refers to 44. In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that deat 45. Based on the text's survey of the life-course, you might conclude that life course stages 46. People who grew up during the 1930s Great Depression would correctly be called a 47. Which of the following concepts refers to a setting where a staff tries to radically change someone’s personality through careful control of the environment? 48. According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is 49. Below is a list of traits linked to a total institution; all but one are correct. Which one is NOT correct? 50. An inmate in prison who loses the capacity for independent living is described as 51. In terms of human freedom, the chapter on socialization leads to the conclusion that 52. In Chapter 3’s “Seeing Sociology in the News” article, a father describes his daughter’s use of new computer technology and concludes that rapid innovation in communication technology is producing TRUE / FALSE QUESTIONS 53. Socialization takes place entirely in childhood. 54. John B. Watson was one of the first social scientists to claim that specific patterns of behavior are not instinctive, but learned. 55. The Harlow studies found that one month of social isolation was enough to permanently damage infant rhesus monkeys. 56. The tragic case of Anna shows how human beings can eventually overcome the effects of severe social isolation. 57. What we know of the later lives of socially isolated children squares with the finding of the Harlows in their laboratory research with rhesus monkeys. 58. Even years of social isolation in infancy may not cause permanent and irreversible developmental damage. 59. The "ego" in Freud's work represents the human being's basic drives, which are unconscious and seek immediate satisfaction. 60. A more common word for "superego" in Freud's model of personality would be "conscience." 61. In Freud's model of personality, the ego manages the opposing forces of the id and the superego. 62. According to Jean Piaget, language and other symbols are first used in the concrete operational stage. 63. Lawrence Kohlberg claimed that individuals develop the capacity for moral reasoning in stages as they grow older. 64. George Herbert Mead focused not on people’s actions so much as on their underlying intentions. 65. George Herbert Mead described how our impressions of other people form the basis of a “looking glass self.” 66. Mead’s theory of the self is based on the interaction between “nature and nurture”. 67. Mead’s concepts of the “I” and the “me” are basically the same as Freud's concepts of the “id” and the “superego.” 68. Erik H. Erikson emphasized that socialization takes across the life course. 69. Of all social institutions, mass media is the one with the greatest impact on socialization for most people. 70. Melvin Kohn demonstrated that parents of all social classes have much the same expectations of their children. 71. In our society, there is no single factor that defines young people as having reached adulthood. 72. Even during adolescence, the family continues to have a strong influence on children. 73. A peer group is a social group whose members share common interests, social position, and a similar age. 74. In simple terms, anticipatory socialization involves learning that helps people prepare for a desired position. 75. Over the course of the last century, the mass media have had less and less influence on people in the United States. 76. In the United States, school children spend about 6 and one-half hours a day in front of video screens, which is about as much time as they spend in school. 77. Childhood and all other stages of the life course are defined in much the same way in all societies. 78. As the proportion of the population in old age increases, we can expect U.S. culture to become more comfortable with the reality of death. 79. In general, low-income countries are more likely to take on the form of gerontocracy with the oldest people having the most wealth and power. 80. Compared to 1960, the poverty rate for elderly people in the United States is higher today. 81. Chapter 3’s “Seeing Sociology in the News” article explains that the latest computer technology gives today’s young people common experiences that set them off from older cohorts. 82. Industrialization brings with it a rise in the social standing of old people. 83. In her interviews with high school students, Grace Kao found that stereotypes about race and ethnicity form part of young people’s sense of self. 84. A cohort is a category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age. 85. A college is a good example of a total institution. 86. Total institutions isolate and try to resocialize inmates. SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS 87. Why are the cases of Anna and Genie important to social scientists? 88. What aspect of Sigmund Freud’s work has importance to the discipline of sociology? 89. Summarize Jean Piaget's contribution to our understanding of socialization. 90. What differences did Carol Gilligan find in how males and females make moral judgments? 91. What, according to George Herbert Mead, is the meaning of the “self”? According to Mead, what are the steps in the development of the self? 92. Explain Erik Erikson’s claim that socialization is a life-long process. 93. Cite several ways in which the family is central to the process of socialization. 94. Explain several contributions schooling makes to the socialization process. 95. Provide evidence in support of the conclusion that stages of the life course are socially constructed. 96. What is a gerontocracy? Is U.S. society a gerontocracy? Explain. 97. According to Erving Goffman, what key traits define a total institution? (Conceptual;) ESSAY QUESTIONS / TOPICS FOR SHORT PAPERS 98. Explain the “nature-nurture” debate. How do the ideas of Sigmund Freud and George Herbert Mead differ in this regard? 99. Summarize Freud's theory of human personality, Piaget's approach to human development, and Mead's view of the development of the self. What do all have in common? What are the main differences between them? 100. What are the major agents of socialization in the United States? What are some specific contributions to human development made by family, school, peer group, and mass media? Can these agents of socialization sometimes be in conflict? How? 101. Describe the various stages of the human life course: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. What characteristics do most people in the United States associate with each? How do we know that these stages, although linked to biological changes, are mostly a social construction? 102. Describe the importance of the mass media in the socialization process. What concerns do people raise about the influence of television and other "screen" media? What evidence can you point out to assess these concerns? 103. Based on the material in Chapter 3, address the issue of human freedom in a socially structured world. That is, to what extent do you think people are free to think and act as they wish? In answering this question, consider the theories presented in the chapter—for example, why does Mead’s theory point to greater human freedom than Freud’s theory? 104. What does it mean to be "grown up" in our society? What factors are involved in a young person being defined as an adult? What importance does social class have in this process? 105. Read through Chapter 3’s “Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life” photo essay on pages 88-89. Describe how many societies clearly mark the transition from childhood to adulthood using community rituals. How clearly does our own way of life mark this transition?
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